Effect Of Cooking On Vegetables:
Cooking affects the palatability of vegetables that is their texture, flavour and colour. All the different methods of cooking can be effectively employed in the preparation of vegetables. The effect of cooking on starch protein and cellulose brings about the change in the texture observe in vegetable when they are cooked. The pre dominate cause for change in texture of vegetable for example leafy vegetables when they are cooked. Which contains high percentage of fibre. Gelatinization of the starch in a Potato is computed before the potato is considered done.
The colour of cooked product will depends on the kind and the amount of colour pigments. The colour pigment of vegetables are chlorophyll, caretenoids, flavours and anthocyanins. When green vegetables are cooked their cell structure get slowly destroyed and the acid of the cells gradually comes in contact with the chlorophyll. Hence green vegetables cooked for long period loses their greeniness. Flavones occur in all plants, but partially in white onion, cabbage, cauliflower etc. During cooking it is important to see that while vegetables do not turn yellow. The editions of acid Sujata lime juice or vinegar will keep them white. The flavour of vegetables depends upon many substances like sugar, acids and variety of volatile substances. As this longer the vegetables are cooked in water, the milder is the flavour.
• Steaming is one of the best cooking methods for preserving nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins.
• Frying makes food taste delicious, and it can provide some benefits when healthy oils are used like Olive oil. It’s best to avoid frying fatty fish and minimize frying time for other foods.
• Roasting or baking does not have a significant effect on most vitamins and minerals, with the exception of B vitamins.
• Vegetables are generally a great source of vitamin C, but a large amount of it is lost when cooked in water.
• Some cooking methods conserve the food material whereas others waste it.
• Grilling and broiling provide great flavor to food but also reduces B vitamins. Grilling generates potentially cancer-causing substances when meat is grilled and fat drips onto a hot surface.
• Microwaving is a safe cooking method that preserves most nutrients due to short cooking time it requires.
• Sauteing and stir-frying improve the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and some plant compounds, but they decrease the amount of vitamin C in vegetables.
Aims & Objectives Of Cooking:
1. Cooking increases palatability of food.
2. Cooking stimulates the digestive juices thereby creating an appetite.
3. Cooking help to provide a balanced meal.
4. Cooking sterilizes the food partially. Cooked food can be stored for a longer time and it provides food poisoning.
5. Cooking retains as far as possible, the nutritive and flavouring ingredients.
6. Cooking givea variety to the menu.
7. Cooking preserves the food for long time.
8. Cooking adds more nutritive value to food.
9. Cooking makes food more appetizing.
10. Cooking makes the food to appreciable textures.
11. Cooking helps to kill harmful bacteria. It makes the food safe to eat.
12. Cooking makes the food easy to chew.
13. Cooking transfers the raw materials to an edible form.
14. Cooking gives us the ability to prepare different types of prepared food with the same raw materials.
15. Cooking improves natural flavour and texture of food.
Role Of Vegetables In Cookery
Vegetables are universally used in all recipes
They are used in Indian as well as Continental preparation
They are used as thickening agent in Gravies and soups
They are used at stuffing in samosa and paratha
They are used for garnishing like shredded carrots, cabbage etc.
They are used as a part of recipes like pulao and in non vegetarian dishes.
They are used in Chutney and Pickle.
Tips To Reduce Nutrient Loss While Cooking:
• Never wash the vegetables after cutting & peeling.
• Do not cut vegetables into very small cubes as each small part comes in contact with oxygen, destroying vitamins.
• Root vegetables should be boiled with skins on and then peeled after boiling. This helps the nutrients to migrate to the centre of the vegetables, helping better retention of its nutrients.
• Use little amount of water for cooking as you can. It will reduces the loss of Vitamin B & C.
• Avoid continuous reheating of food. Also don’t overcook the food as it may loss vitamins.
• Baking soda makes cooking water alkaline and thus helps retain the color of vegetables as well as speed up the cooking process. Don’t use baking soda when cooking vegetables. Although it helps maintain color, vitamin C will be lost in the alkaline environment produced by baking soda.
• Salads should be prepared just before serving and should be served in closed dishes to avoid excessive exposure to air.
• Choose proper cooking method which requires less time. It will preserves the vitamins & minerals.
• Consume the liquid left in the pan after cooking vegetables by re-using it in soups, broths, for cooking rice, and so on to minimize nutrient loss.
• While peeling vegetables peel as thinly as possible.
• Don’t soak vegetables in water to prevent discoloration-Almost 40% of water soluble vitamins and minerals are lost in the water. If you must soak, use up the soaking water in other cooking process. Don’t waste it as it contains soluble Vitamins.