Food ProductionIngredients/GlossaryUncategorized

Top 180 French Culinary Terms Used By Professional Chef

1. Abats:

Butchers supplies such as head, hearts, liver & kidney etc.

2. A’la:

Meaning merely “In the style of’

3. A’la Broche:

Roasted in front of a spit or in a dutch oven.

4. A’la Diable:

Very hot and highly seasoned dish.

5. A’la Franchaise:

Dishes that are prepared in French way.

6. Appetizer:

A tibit served before meal or as the first course.

7. Au Four:

Baked in the oven.

8. Au Gratin:

Any dish covered with sauce, cheese & afterward baked or grilled.

9. Au Natural:

Simply cooked food.

10. Baba:

A light yeast cake soaked in rum.

11. Bake:

To cook by dry heat, usually in an oven.

12. Barbecue:

Meat based with a highly seasoned Sauce.

13. Balter:

A mixture of flour & liquid such as milk, egg etc.

14. Beat:

To mix air with food by vigorous motion.

15. Bechamel:

A rich white sauce.

16. Burre Noir:

Browned Butter.

17. Bouquet Garni:

A small bundle or bunch of mixed herbs used for flavouring soups, stews etc.

18. Brioche:

A very light french rolls.

19. Cafe Au Lait:

Coffee with milk, White Coffee.

20. Canapes:

Small piece of toast or pastry on which light savouries are served.

21. Carte De Jour:

Menu for the day.

22. Caramelize:

To heat suger until it turns brown.

23. Cavier:

Salted roe of sturgeon or similar fish.

24. Chiniois:

A conical strainer.

25. Cisel:

Finely chopped vegetables.

26. Coat:

To cover with a thin layer.

27. Concass:

To chop roughly.

28. Condiments:

Spices & Seasonings.

29. Consistency:

The thickness or texture of mixture such as cake or batter mixture.

30. Crepe:


31. Croissants:

French rolls, crisp & light

32. Custard:

A cooked or baked mixture made of milk & eggs.

33. Dissolve:

To melt a solid food in a liquid.

34. Dough:

A mixture of liquid, flour etc. Kneaded together into a stiff paste or roll.

35. Dust:

To sprinkle lightly with fine sugar, dried milk or flour.

36. Entremetes:

Hot or cold sweets

37. Farci:

Any kind of stuffing.

38. Foie Gras:

Liver of fat goose.

39. Fritters:

Fruit, Meat, Vegetables or Fish coated with batter & fried, usually in deep fat.

40. Fry:

To cook food in very hot fat in an open frying pan.

41. Gelatine:

Cooked meat that has been boned, pressed into a mould with jelly and served cold.

42. Garnish:

To decorate.

43. Garniture:


44. Glace:

Ice, Ice-cream, icing to make smooth or glossy with icin or jelly.

45. Hors D’oeuvre:

Small savoury tibits usually cold, served as an appetizer at the beginning of a meal.

46. Julinne:

Food cut into long strips.

47. Knead:

To work a dough.

48. Liason:

Mixture of eggs & cream used for thickening white sauces and soups.

49. Marinate:

To soak meat or fish in a marinade.

50. Menu:

List of fare.

51. Pare:

To Peel.

52. Plat Du Jour:

Special Dish Of The Day.

53. Pluck:

To remove feathers from poultry & game.

54. Potage:

A nourishing broth or soup.

55. Puree:

A smooth mixture obtained by rubbing cooked fruit or vegetables through a sieve.

56. Raising Agents:

Substances which produce a gas when acted on by heat or other substances eg. Baking powder, Baking soda, Yeast etc.

57. Rechauffe:

A re-heated dish.

58. Saute:

Toss & lightly brown in shallow fat.

59. Seasoned Flour:

Flour flavoured with salt & pepper.

60. Shortening:

Fat suitable for baking is sometimes called this.

61. Sift:

To put dry ingredients through a fine sieve.

62. Simmer:

To cook a liquid at a temperature just below boiling point.

63. Skewer:

A long pin of wood or metal used to secure meat or poultry while cooking.

64. Stew:

To cook by simmering in a little liquid.

65. Table D’hote:

A set meal at a fixed price.

66. Tutti-Frutti:

Mixed Fruit.

67. Whisk:

To beat cream or eggs until a stiff froth.

68. Zest:

Thin outer skin of oranges & lemons.

69. Aigulettes:

Thin strip of the fish, breast of poultry, cut lengthwise.

70. Aging:

To improve tenderness of meat which is held at a cold temperature.

71. A’la Bourgeoise:

Family style-plan.

72. A’la Broche:

Cooked and roasted on a skewer. Meat or seafood served on a skewer.

73. Acidulation:

The process of adding citric or acetic acid to water, used to preserve color, to clean aluminum or to soak kidneys and game.

74. A’la Carte:

Foods prepared to order, each dish priced separately.

75. Anglaise:

To cook a Panglaise means to cook plainly in water. It also means the preparation of dish dipped in egg and breadcrumbs and fried.

76. Appareil:

Mixture of different elements for the preparation of a dish.

77. Aromates:

Vegetables like carrots, turnips, onions, leeks, herbs and spices that impart aroma to a dish they are put into.

78. Aspic:

Clear meat or poultry jelly. It is a gelatine in a thin syrupy stage used to decorate dishes in the larder.

79. A Point:

French term for cooking until the ideal degree of doneness. When referred to meat, it means medium rare.

80. Arroser:

To baste as in roasting.

81. Assorti:

An Assortment.

82. Au Bleu:

In french, it means underdone, ie. the meat is not cooked properly, another meaning is preparing and cooking of a live trout in cooking liquor.

83. Au Jus:

Served with natural juices or gravy.

84. Bain-Marie:

A hot water bath in which utensils containing various culinary preparation are immersed to warm or for the purpose of poaching and reheated.

85. Barding:

Pieces of port fat placed over the lean meat, fish or the breast of a bird to prevent drying.

86. Barquette:

A boat shaped pastry tartlet with a filling.

87. Baste:

To moisten food product with drippings or fat while cooking. The other term for it is spooning of fat.

88. Baron:

A double surloin and rump of beef; also the saddle and two legs of lamb.

89. Bat:

To flatten slices of raw meat with a cutlet bat, dipping in a water to prevent meat from sticking to the bat.

90. Batter:

Mixture of flour and liquid of a consistency that can be stirred. Batter could be plain or with eggs. For the beignets and fritters, food items are dipped in the batter & fried.

91. Bure Fondue:

Melted Butter.

92. Burre Manie:

Equal quantity of flour and butter put in sauces etc for thickening.

93. Beignets:

Fritters, Savoury or Sweet eg. Banana beignets.

94. Bind:

To cohere, unit or hold together. To the croquette mixture, egg is added to bind.

95. Bisque:

A thick Sauce or Soup from shellfish or game.

96. Blae:


97. Blanching:

To submerge in boiling water for a short time. It is done in many ways, the tomatoes are dipped in boiling water to blanch ie. to remove skin. Cauliflower is dipped in the boiling water to white the colour. French fried potatoes are put in hot fat to let a skin from and to partially Cook them.

98. Blanquette:

A white stew of veal which has been stiffened in butter and then cooked in white sauce.

99. Blend:

Thorough mixing of two or more ingredients.

100. Bombe:

A frozen dessert. A combination of two or more frozen mixtures(ice -creams,sherbets or mousse)packed in a round or melon shaped mould and frozen.


101. Bouillon:

Soup made of stock which is not as strong as consomme but stronger than broth.

102. Bouchee:

Very small meat patty or pastry shell filled with meat, poultry or lobster.

103. Bouillabaisse:

The Frech provencale “Stew ” made of numerous types of fish; combined with savoury spices and oil, served with toasted French garlic bread.

104. Bortsch:

An unpasesed soup with an accent on beetroot and is duck flavored. Native of Poland or Russia. The accompaniments are sour cream, duck bouchee and beetroot juice.

105. Broil:

The ancient term for grilling.

106. Brunnoise:

Cut into fine dices.

107. Buffet:

Display of ready to eat foods often self-service from a table of assorted food.

108. Cafe:


109. Canning:

Cooking fruit in heavy syrup until transparent. Then drained and dried.

110. A la grecque:

A preparation style where vegetables are marinated in olive oil, lemon juice and herbs and served cold.

111. Cannoloni:

Italian frianaceous dish. It is a pasta preparation stuffed with savoury minced meat and rolled into cigar shapes.

112. Capon :

A young male bird withch has been castrated to improve flavour and to fatten. Noted for its tenderness.

113. Casserole:

An earthenware or Pyrex fireproof dish with a lid.

114. Cepes:

Species of Mushrooms.

115. Champignons:


116. Chantilly Cream:

Whipped cream.

117. Chapelure:

Crumbs made from dried breads.

118. Chateaubriand:

A steak cut from the head to the beef fillet usually broiled. The steak has been named after the viscount of Chateaubriand.

119. Clarify:

To make clear eg. Fat stock or jelly.

120. Chaudfroid:

Veloute or deni- glaze with aspic or gelatine used for making cold dishes.

121. Chiffonade:

Shreds of lettuce or sorrel.

122. Clous Sous:

Under bell, usually glass.

123. Clove:

Studded, eg. Clove , bay leaf in an onion.

124. Cocate :

Porcelain or earthenware fireproof dish.

125. Cook out:

Process of cooking the flour in the roux, sauce or soup.

126. Concassee:

Coarsely chopped, eg. Blanched tomatoes or parsley etc.

127. Correcting:

Adjusting the seasoning, consistency and color of a dish.

128. Consomme:

Clear soup made from minced meat, aromatic vegetables, herbs and stock; etc. It is then clarified with egg white.

129. Cordon:

To have a thin line of sauce.

130. Coulis:

An essence made from shellfish, also used as a sauce.

131. Court Bouillon:

A lightly flavored Cooking liquor in which fish is cooked.

132. Contre Fillet:

Sirloin of beef, deboned.

133. Crackling:

The rind of roast pork.

134. Croute:

Rounds made out of bread or brioche dough used as hors d’ oeuvres or as a garnish.

135. Croquettes:- Thick white sauce or mashed potato base, plus minced meat, fish or vegies shaped as pipes dipped in beaten eggs. Breadcrumbed and deep fired.

136. Croutons:

Small dieces of fancy shapes or fried or toasted bread used as a garnish for soups or as underlined for all kinds of canapes.

137. Cuisine:

Art of cooking, preparation in the kitchen.

138. Cuit:


139. Deglace:

To swill a pan in which food has been cooked with wine/stock to use the sediment & essences.

140. Dariole:

A deep round sloping sided mould like a flowerpot.

141. Darne:

A section of the fish cut across the bone of a large whole round fish.

142. Demi:


143. Diable:


144. Demiglaze:

Brown sauce made by reducing equal quantities of brown stock & brown sauce.

145. Drain:

Place food cooked in a strainer or colander.

146. Dredging:

Coating with dry ingredients. Eg. Sugar/Flour.

147. Docking:

Making holes in a pastry goods to allow steam to pass.

148. Duram Wheat:

Hard wheat with high gluten content used for making pasta & semolina.

149. Depouiller:

To skim.

150. Duxelle:

Minced vegetable stuffing or forcemeat consisting of mushrooms, parsley & shallots.

151. Drippings:

The fat & juice which drops from roasting meats. Animal fat is also known as drippings.

152. Dust:

Sprinkling fine sugar or flour.

153. Emulsion:

A mixture of egg yolk & oil incorporated, does not seperate on standing. Eg. Mayonnaise, Hollandaise.

154. Egg Wash:

Brush food items with egg yolk.

155. Emince:

Cut fine or shredded fine.

156. Encasserole:

Food served in the same dish in which it was cooked.

157. Entree:

A main dish of meat or poultry for an informal meal.

158. Entremet:

Refers to the sweet course, cold or hot.

159. Espagnole:

Basic Brown Sauce.

160. Estauffade:

Brown Stock.

161. Escalopes:

To cut thin slices sideways.

162. Etamine:

Tammy or double thickness of choose cloth for straining soups & sauces.

163. Epigramme:

Boned breast of lamb.

164. Fleuron:

Small crescent shape, puff pastry, used as garnish for poached fish, meat etc.

165. Farce:

Stuffing and farci means stuffed.

166. Farinacious:

It is a word derived from latin word “Farina” meaning flour, a wide ra of dishes made from flour. Eg. Spaghetti, Macaroni etc.

167. Fillets:

Boneless flesh under the loin of beef, veal or pork.

168. Flake:

To break into natural segment (fish)

169. Florentine:

With Spinach.

170. Flute:

A long crisp roll of bread, thin slices cut on a slant and used for garnishing soups

171. Foie gras:

Flattened goose liver.

172. Fond de Cuisine:

Kitchen stock.

173. Fool:

A cold Sweet dish made with sieved fruit and whipped to a light mixture served with cream.

174. Forcemeat:

Mixture of the minced or chopped meat and seasonings, used for stuffing.

175. Frappe:

Partially frozen drinks or desserts.

176. Fricadellas:

Meat balls or round cakes made with either raw or cooked meat.

177. Fricandeau:

Is a slice of veal taken from the topside of veal.

178. Fricassee:

Small pieces of chicken, veal or rabit cooked in white sauce, with the addition of mushrooms, onions etc. The other name for it is white stew.

179. Friture:

A pan that contains deep fat.

180. Frizzling:

Cooking in small amount of fat until crisp.

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